Influence of LED light spectra and photoperiods on broiler breeders production, reproduction, blood metabolites, immunological response, and hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) relative gene expression

Document Type : Original Research Article (Regular Paper)


1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University,71441-65186 Shiraz, Iran

2 Shiraz University1Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 71441-65186 Shiraz, Iran

3 1Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 71441-65186 Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, 41635-1314, Rasht, Guilan, Iran.

5 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 71441-65186 Shiraz, Iran.

6 Senior Technical Advisor (Consultant) to Deputy Head of Livestock Production Improvement, Agricultural Organization, 41937-13731 Rasht, Iran.


Lighting is one of the important management factors affecting the health and welfare of birds. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on production, reproduction, blood metabolites, immunology, and hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) gene expression in broiler breeders. One-day-old Ross 308 female breeder chicks (n=100) were randomly assigned to 20 light-proof pens and reared under five lighting regimens, including green (GL) or white (WL) LED at two exposure photophases (8 or 12 hours) as a 2 ´ 2 factorial experiment plus a control group (incandescent lamp at 8L:16D duration; CON). The LED color affected the feed intake during the rearing period, being higher in white than in green light; however, green light resulted in more medium and large white follicles on the ovaries, higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and plasma cholesterol level. In WL8 lighting, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius was higher (P≤0.05) than in CON birds. Plasma cholesterol level in GL12 was higher compared to CON. Conventional and WL12 regimens resulted in lower plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Twelve hours of GL lighting resulted in higher eggshell weight and strength while it caused a small but significant decrease in egg shape index. Greater numbers of medium white (MWF) and large white (LWF) follicles were recorded in GL12 birds, and there were more small white follicles (SWF) in GL8 group (P≤0.05). The GL12 and CON lighting resulted in higher concentrations of WBC and Hb compared with WL. Hepatic expression of SREBP1 was higher in WL8 birds. The results indicated that green LED improved egg quality while white LED caused higher relative weight of bursa and hepatic SREBP1 expression, indicating the LED light may be beneficial to broiler breeder productivity. However, more studies are required to substantiate these findings. 


Main Subjects


Alasahan, S., Copur, A.G., 2016. Hatching characteristics and growth performance of eggs with different egg shapes. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 18, 01-08.
Alyileili, S.R., El-Tarabily, K.A., Belal, I.E., Ibrahim, W.H., Sulaiman, M., Hussein, A.S., 2020. Effect of Trichoderma reesei degraded date pits on antioxidant enzyme activities and biochemical responses of broiler chickens. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7, 338.
Aslam, S.M., Garlich, J.D., Qureshi, M.A., 1998. Vitamin D deficiency alters the immune responses of broiler chicks. Poultry Science 77, 842-849.
Aviagen. 2019. Ross Parentstock Management Handbook, (Aviagen).
Aviagen. 2021. Ross 308 Parentstock: Nutrition Specifications, (Aviagen).
Baxter, M. and Bédécarrats, G.Y., 2019. Evaluation of the impact of light source on reproductive parameters in laying hens housed in individual cages. The Journal of Poultry Science 56, 148-158.
Biggins, J.D., Thompson, J.E., Birkhead, T.R., 2018. Accurately quantifying the shape of birds’ eggs. Ecology and Evolution 8, 9728-9738.
Brake, J., Garlich, J.D., Baughman, G.R., 1989. Effects of lighting program during the growing period and dietary fat during the laying period on broiler breeder performance. Poultry Science 68, 1185-1192.
Cheema, M.A., Qureshi, M.A., Havenstein, G.B., 2003. A comparison of the immune response of a 2001 commercial broiler with a 1957 randombred broiler strain when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poultry Science 82, 1519-1529.
Chowdhury, S.R., Chowdhury, S.D., Smith, T.K., 2002. Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poultry Science 81, 1856-1862.
Coelho, L.M., Leão, A.P.A., Bernardes, L.F., Alves, V.V., Martins, B.G., Peixoto, J.V., Pereira, L.J., Fassani, É.J., Alvarenga, R.R., Zangeronimo, M.G., 2021. Reproductive aspects of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatched from eggs incubated under different light colors. Theriogenology 170, 67-76.
Donoghue, D.J., Campbell, R.M., Scanes, C.G., 1990. Research Note: Effect of biosynthetic chicken growth hormone on egg production in White Leghorn hens. Poultry Science 69, 1818-1821.
Doyon, G., Bernier-Cardou, M., Hamilton, R.M.G., Castaigne, F. and Randall, C.J., 1986. Egg quality. 2. Albumen quality of eggs from five commercial strains of White Leghorn hens during one year of lay. Poultry Science 65, 63-66.
Duman, M., Sekeroglu, A., Yildirim, A., Eleroglu, H., Camci, O., 2016. Relation between egg shape index and egg quality characteristics. European Poultry Science 80, 1-9.
Er, D., Wang, Z., Cao, J., Chen, Y., 2007. Effect of monochromatic light on the egg quality of laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16, 605-612.
Franco, B.R., Shynkaruk, T., Crowe, T., Fancher, B., French, N., Gillingham, S., Schwean-Lardner, K., 2022. Light color and the commercial broiler: effect on behavior, fear, and stress. Poultry Science 101, 102052-102060.
Gilardi, F., Migliavacca, E., Naldi, A., Baruchet, M., Canella, D., Le Martelot, G., Guex, N., Desvergne, B., Consortium, C., 2014. Genome-wide analysis of SREBP1 activity around the clock reveals its combined dependency on nutrient and circadian signals. PLoS Genetics 10, e1004155.
Haldar, C., Bishnupuri, K.S., 2001. Comparative view of pineal gland morphology of nocturnal and diurnal birds of tropical origin. Microscopy Research and Technique 53, 25-32.
Hillgartner, F.B., Salati, L.M., Goodridge, A.G., 1995. Physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthesis. Physiological Reviews 75, 47-76.
House, G.M., Sobotik, E.B., Nelson, J.R., Archer, G.S., 2021. A comparison of white/red and white/blue LED light fixtures on Pekin duck production, stress and behaviour. British Poultry Science 62, 467-473.
Hrabia, A., Leśniak, A., Sechman, A., 2013. In vitro effects of TCDD, PCB126 and PCB153 on estrogen receptors, caspases and metalloproteinase-2 mRNA expression in the chicken shell gland. Folia Biologica (Kraków) 61, 277-282.
Huang, J., Yang, D., Gao, S., Wang, T., 2008. Effects of soy-lecithin on lipid metabolism and hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in broiler chickens. Livestock Science 118, 53-60.
Huth, J.C., Archer, G.S., 2015. Comparison of two LED light bulbs to a dimmable CFL and their effects on broiler chicken growth, stress, and fear. Poultry Science 94, 2027-2036.
Ibrahim, S.A., El Kholya, S.Z., El-Far, A.H., Mahrous, U.E., 2012. Influence of lighting color on behavior, productive traits and blood parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica). World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 67, 1234-1244.
Jie, D., Zhang, Z., He, J., Zhou, Y., Zhu, G., 2022. Effects of different LED light colors on growth performance and harmful gas emission of broilers breeding in a digital rearing chamber. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 15, 71-78.
Ke, Y.Y., Liu, W.J., Wang, Z.X., Chen, Y.X., 2011. Effects of monochromatic light on quality properties and antioxidation of meat in broilers. Poultry Science 90, 2632-2637.
Kim, H.J., Son, J., Jeon, J.J., Kim, H.S., Yun, Y.S., Kang, H.K., Hong, E.C., Kim, J.H., 2022. Effects of Photoperiod on the Performance, Blood Profile, Welfare Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens. Animals 12, 2290.
Kliger, C.A., Gehad, A.E., Hulet, R.M., Roush, W.B., Lillehoj, H.S., Mashaly, M.M., 2000. Effects of photoperiod and melatonin on lymphocyte activities in male broiler chickens. Poultry Science 79, 18-25.
Lewis, P.D., Morris, T.R., 1998. Responses of domestic poultry to various light sources. World's Poultry Science Journal 54, 7-25.
Lewis, P.D., Ciacciariello, M., Ciccone, N.A., Sharp, P.J., Gous, R.M., 2005. Lighting regimens and plasma LH and FSH in broiler breeders. British Poultry Science 46, 349-353.
Li, S., Cao, J., Wang, Z., Dong, Y., Wang, W., Chen, Y., 2016. Melatonin Mediates Monochromatic Light‐induced Insulin‐like Growth Factor 1 Secretion of Chick Liver: Involvement of Membrane Receptors. Photochemistry and Photobiology 92, 595-603.
Livak, K.J., Schmittgen, T.D., 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. Methods 25, 402-408.
Marquardt, W.W., Snyder, D.B., Savage, P.K., Kadavil, S.K., Yancey, F.S., 1985. Antibody response to Newcastle disease virus given by two different routes as measured by ELISA and hemagglutination-inhibition test and associated tracheal immunity. Avian Diseases  29, 71-79.
Mellor, D.B., Gardner, F.A., Miller, M.M., 1975. Interior Quality Decline in Eggs Cartoned and Sealed in Plastic Bags. Poultry Science 54, 1998-2001.
Mendes, A.S., Paixão, S.J., Restelatto, R., Morello, G.M., de Moura, D.J., Possenti, J.C., 2013. Performance and preference of broiler chickens exposed to different lighting sources. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22, 62-70.
Mohamed, R.A., El-Kholya, S.Z., Shukry, M., El-Kassas, S., El Saidy, N.R., 2017. Manipulation of broiler growth performance, physiological and fear responses using three monochromatic LED lights. Alexandria Journal for Veterinary Sciences 53, 57-62.
Ni, Y., Zhu, Q., Zhou, Z., Grossmann, R., Chen, J., Zhao, R., 2007. Effect of dietary daidzein on egg production, shell quality, and gene expression of ER-α, GH-R, and IGF-IR in shell glands of laying hens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 6997-7001.
Olanrewaju, H.A., Thaxton, J.P., Dozier, W.A., Purswell, J., Roush, W.B., Branton, S.L., 2006. A review of lighting programs for broiler production. International Journal of Poultry Science 5, 301-308.
Onbaşılar, E.E., Yalçın, S., Torlak, E., Özdemir, P., 2009. Effects of early feed restriction on live performance, carcass characteristics, meat and liver composition, some blood parameters, heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, antibody production and tonic immobility duration. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41, 1513-1519.
Oso, O.M., Metowogo, K., Oke, O.E., Tona, K., 2022. Influence of LED bulb on reproductive and production performance of different poultry species: a review. World's Poultry Science Journal 78, 515-529.
Özkan, S., Yalçın, S., Bayraktar, Ö.H., Bilgen, G., Dayıoğlu, M., Bolhuis, J.E., Rodenburg, T.B., 2022. Effects of incubation lighting with green or white light on brown layers: hatching performance, feather pecking and hypothalamic expressions of genes related with photoreception, serotonin, and stress systems. Poultry Science 101, 102114.
Parvin, R., Mushtaq, M.M.H., Kim, M.J., Choi, H.C., 2014. Light emitting diode (LED) as a source of monochromatic light: a novel lighting approach for behaviour, physiology and welfare of poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 70, 543-556.
Prescott, N.B., Wathes, C.M., 1999. Spectral sensitivity of the domestic fowl (Gallus g. domesticus). British Poultry Science 40, 332-339.
Qin, X., Liu, X., Yan, X., Long, M., Wang, Z., Dong, Y., Chen, Y., Cao, J., 2021. Melatonin mediates monochromatic light-induced expression of somatostatin in the hypothalamus and pituitary of chicks. Poultry Science 100, 101285.
Renema, R.A., Robinson, F.E., Proudman, J.A., Newcombe, M. and McKay, R.I., 1999. Effects of body weight and feed allocation during sexual maturation in broiler breeder hens. 2. Ovarian morphology and plasma hormone profiles. Poultry Science 78, 629-639.
Rozenboim, I., Biran, I., Chaiseha, Y., Yahav, S., Rosenstrauch, A., Sklan, D., Halevy, O., 2004. The effect of a green and blue monochromatic light combination on broiler growth and development. Poultry Science 83, 842-845.
Ruiz, R., Jideonwo, V., Ahn, M., Surendran, S., Tagliabracci, V.S., Hou, Y., Gamble, A., Kerner, J., Irimia-Dominguez, J.M., Puchowicz, M.A., DePaoli-Roach, A., 2014. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is required to regulate glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenic gene expression in mouse liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry 289, 5510-5517.
Saleh, N., Allam, T., El-Latif, A.A., Ghazy, E., 2014. The effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oils on performance, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Global Veterinaria 12, 736-744.
Seo, H.S., Kang, M., Yoon, R.H., Roh, J.H., Wei, B., Ryu, K.S., Cha, S.Y., Jang, H.K., 2015. Effects of various LED light colors on growth and immune response in broilers. The Journal of Poultry Science 53, 76-81.
Su, C.H., Cheng, C.H., Lin, J.H., Liu, H.C., Yu, Y.T., Lin, C.C., Chen, W.J., 2021. The effect of different colored light emitting diode illumination on egg laying performance, egg qualities, blood hormone levels and behavior patterns in Brown Tsaiya duck. Animal Bioscience 34, 1870-1878.
Tabeekh, M.A.A., 2016. An investigation on the effect of light color and stocking density on some blood parameters of broilers and layers. Donnish Journal of Agriculture Research 3, 8-12.
Thaxton, J.P., Puvadolpirod, S., 2000. Model of physiological stress in chickens 5. Quantitative evaluation. Poultry Science 79, 391-395.
Thompson, K.L., Applegate, T.J., 2006. Feed withdrawal alters small-intestinal morphology and mucus of broilers. Poultry Science 85, 1535-1540.
Wei, Y., Zheng, W., Li, B., Tong, Q., Shi, H., 2020. Effects of a two-phase mixed color lighting program using light-emitting diode lights on layer chickens during brooding and rearing periods. Poultry Science 99, 4695-4703.
Wu, Y., Huang, J., Quan, S., Yang, Y., 2022. Light regimen on health and growth of broilers: an update review. Poultry Science 101, 101545-550.
Xie, D., Li, J., Wang, Z.X., Cao, J., Li, T.T., Chen, J.L., Chen, Y.X., 2011. Effects of monochromatic light on mucosal mechanical and immunological barriers in the small intestine of broilers. Poultry Science 90, 2697-2704.
Xie, D., Wang, Z.X., Dong, Y.L., Cao, J., Wang, J.F., Chen, J.L., Chen, Y.X., 2008. Effects of monochromatic light on immune response of broilers. Poultry Science 87, 1535-1539.
Yang, Y.F., Jiang, J.S., Pan, J.M., Ying, Y.B., Wang, X.S., Zhang, M.L., Lu, M.S., Chen, X.H., 2016. The relationship of spectral sensitivity with growth and reproductive response in avian breeders (Gallus gallus). Scientific Reports 6, 1-9.
Yenilmez, F.A.T.M.A., Atay, A., Serbester, U., Celik, L., 2021. Effects of monochromatic light on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and blood biochemical profile of laying hens. JAPS: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 31, 46-52.
Yue, L., Qin, X., Liu, X., Wang, Z., Dong, Y., Chen, Y., Cao, J., 2019. Melatonin receptor Mel1b-and Mel1c-mediated green light induced the secretion of growth hormone in anterior pituitary of chicks. Photochemistry and Photobiology 95, 1387-1394.