Nutritional value of barley, triticale and oat grain varieties based on in vitro gas production and fermentation parameters, and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

Document Type : Original Research Article (Regular Paper)


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.

2 Department of Animal and Poultry Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.


This research was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of different varieties of barley (Turkmen, Reyhan and Gorgan), triticale (Juvanilo, Rondo and Massa) and oat (Wild and Canadian) grains. The chemical composition of the samples was determined using the standard methods of AOAC. Gas production (GP) test was performed to estimate the in vitro fermentation parameters. In vitro digestibility was determined by the batch culture procedure. The carbohydrate fractions of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were also measured. Crude protein (CP) content was more in triticale and barley than oat grains (P<0.01). Triticale grains had higher contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lower lignin compared to barley and oat grains (P<0.01). The amounts of GP potential and fermentation parameters were higher in triticale and barley than oat grains (P<0.01). Partitioning factor (PF, P<0.01), microbial biomass (MB, P<0.05) and efficiency of microbial biomass (EMB P<0.01) were more in different varieties of triticale and barley than oat varieties. According to CNCPS, carbohydrate portions and total carbohydrate content in triticale and barley grains were higher than in oat grains (P<0.01). The highest and lowest contents of none- fiber carbohydrates (NFC), starch, and soluble sugars were observed in triticale and oat varieties, respectively. Totally, triticale and barley grains had a better nutritional value than oat grains. Triticale grains were as good as barley grains in most aspects, while being superior in some traits. 


Main Subjects

Aboagye, I.A., Rosser, C.L., Baron, V.S., Beauchemin, K.A., 2021. In vitro assessment of enteric methane emission potential of whole-plant barley, oat, triticale and wheat. Animals 11, 450-467.
Alaei, A., Ghanbari, F., Bayat Kouhsar, J., Fariba, F., 2022. Effects of chemical processing on the nutritional value of green pea (Pisum sativum) residue. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies 10, 41-50.
Aman, P., 1987. The variation in chemical composition of Swedish oats. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 37, 347-352.
Ammar, H., L´opez, S., Andr´es, S., Ranilla, M.J., Bodas, R., Gonz´alez, J.S., 2008. In vitro digestibility and fermentation kinetics of some browse plants using sheep or goat ruminal fluid as the source of inoculum. Animal Feed Science and Technology 147, 90-104.
AOAC, 2005. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.
Assefa, G., Ledin, I., 2001. Effect of variety, soil type and fertilizer on the establishment, growth, forage yield, quality and voluntary intake by cattle of oats and vetches cultivated in net stands and mixtures. Animal Feed Science and Technology 92, 95-111.
Babayi, M., Ghanbari, F., Gharehbash, A.M., Bayat Kouhsar, J., 2016. Effects of processing with electron beam, hydrogen peroxide and hydrobromic acid on the nutritional value of vetch wastes. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research 8, 441-454. (In Farsi with English Abstract).
Bayatkouhsar, J., Rezaii, F., Ghanbari, F., Rahchamani, R., 2022. Morning vs. afternoon harvest time of alfalfa, clover, and barley after the chemical composition and nutritional value of silage. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 12, 11-21.
Bayatkouhsar, J., Rezaii, F., Mahmoudnia, N., Ghanbari, F., 2021. The effect of fermentation by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the nutritional value of date palm kernel. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies 9, 41-50.
Beuvink, J.M.W., Spoelstra, S.F., Hogendorp, R.J., 1992. An automated method for measuring time course of gas production of feedstuff incubated with buffered rumen fluid. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 40, 401-407.
Biel, W., Jacyno, E., Kawecka, M., 2014. Chemical composition of hulled, dehulled and naked oat grains. South African Journal of Animal Science 44, 189-197.
Blummel, M., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 1997. In vitro gas production: A technique revisited. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 77, 34-24.
Blummel, M., Orskov, E.R., 1993. Composition of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting food intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology 40, 109-119.
Bressler, D., Naguleswaran, S., Jihong, L., Vasanthan, T., Ratnajothi, H., 2012. Amylolysis of large and small granules of native triticale-wheat and corn starches using a mixture of a-amylase and glucoamylase. Carbohydrates Polymers 88, 864-874.
Broderick, G.A., Kang, J.H., 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 64-75.
Bushuk, W., Larter, E.N., 1980. Triticale: Production, chemistry, and technology. In Y. Pomeranz, ed. Advances in Cereal Science and Technology 3, 115-157.
Church, D.C., 1991. Livestock Feeds and Feeding. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. P. 546.
Cook, N.B., Nordlund, K.V., Oetzel, G.R., 2004. Environmental influences on claw horn lesions associated with laminitis and subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 36-46.
Cousins, W.J., 1976. Elastic modulus of lignin as related to moisture content. Wood Science and Technology 10, 9-17.
Danesh Mesgaran, M., Malakkhahi, M., Heravi Moussavi, B., Vakili, A.R., Tahmasbi, A., 2010. In situ ruminal degradation and in vitro gas production of chemically treated sesame stover. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9, 2256-2260.
Doran, M.P., Laca, E.A., Sainz R.D., 2007. Total tract and rumen digestibility of mulberry foliage (Morusalba), alfalfa hay and oat hay in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 138, 239-253.
Engstrom, D.F., Mathison, G.W. Goonewardene, L.A., 1992. Effect of beta-glucan, starch, and fiber content and steam vs dry rolling of barley-grain on its degradability and utilization by steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 37, 33-46.
Filya, I., 2004. Nutritive value and aerobic stability of whole crop maize silage harvested at four stages of maturity. Animal Feed Science and Technology 116, 141-150.
Firkins, J.L., Yu, Z., Morrison, M., 2007. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism: perspectives for integration of microbiology and nutrition for dairy. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 1-16.
Georgiades, E., Hadjipanayiotou, M., 1985. Digestibility of triticale and barley grains given to sheep whole, ground or treated with urea. Technical Bulletin P, 2315.
Getachew, G., Blümmel, M., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds. A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 27, 261-281.
Gholami, H., Aman pour, A., Yaghob-Far, A., Kochaki, A. Nazari, M.A., 2012. Determination of nutritional value of 13 triticale seeds in poultry nutrition. Anim. Sci. (Res and Develop). 96, 25-32. (In Farsi with English Abstract).
Giraldo, P., Benavente, E., Manzano-Agugliaro, F., 2019. Worldwide research trends on wheat and barley: A bibliometric comparative analysis. Agronomy 9, 352-370.
Gulsen, N., Umucalilar, H.D., Coskun, B., 2002. In situ rumen degradation and in vitro gas production of some selected grains from turkey. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 86, 288-297.
Haddi, M.L., Filacorda, S., Meniai, K., Rollin, F., Susmel, P., 2003. In vitro fermentation kinetics of some halophyte shrubs sampled at three stage maturity. Animal Feed Science and Technology 104, 215-225.
Heger, J., Eggum, B.O., 1991. The nutritional values of some high-yielding cultivars of triticale. Journal of Cereal Science 14, 63-71.
Hinojosa, M.B., Lozano, D.R., Hede, A., Rajaram, S., 2002. Experiences and potential of triticale as a winter irrigated fodder crop in Northern Mexico. In: Arseniuk, E. (Ed.), Proc. Of the 5th International Triticale Symposium. Radzikow, Poland, pp. 123-130.
Hoffmann, L.A., 1995. World production and use of oats. In: Welch, R.W. (Ed.), The Oat Crop Production and Utilization. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 34-61.
Humer, E., Zebeli, Q., 2017. Grains in ruminant feeding and po-tentials to enhance their nutritive and health value by chemical processing. Animal Feed Science and Technology 226, 133-151.
Johnson, R., Eason, P., 1988. Evaluation of triticale for use in diets for meat-type chickens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 42, 95-108.
Khorasani, G.R., Helm, J.H., Kennelly, J.J., 2000. In situ rumen degradation characteristics of sixty cultivars of barley grain. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80, 691-701.
Krieg, J., Seifried, N., Steingass, H., Rodehutscord, M., 2017. In situ and in vitro ruminal starch degradation of grains from different rye, triticale and barley genotypes. Animal 11, 1745-1753.
Lanzas, C., Sniffen, C.J., Seo, S., Tedeschi, L.O., Fox, D.G., 2007. A revised CNCPS feed carbohydrate fractionation scheme for formulating rations for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 136, 167-190.
Lee, J., Seok Nam, D., Kong, Ch., 2016. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins. Springer Plus 5, 419- 425
Li, J., Vasanthan, H., Rossnagel, T., Hoover, B., 2001. Starch from hull-less barley: I. Granula morphology, composition and amilopectin structure. Food Chemistry 74, 395-405.
Libera, K., Szumacher- Strabel, M., Vazirigohar, M., Zielinski, W., Lukow, R., Wysocka, K., Kołodziejski, P., Lechniak, D., Varadyova, Z., Patra, A.K., Cieslak, A., 2021. Effects of feeding urea-treated triticale and oat grain mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbial population, and milk production performance of mid-lactation dairy cows. Annals of Animal Science 21, 1007-1025.
Licitra, G., Hernandez, T.M., Van Soest, P.J., 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57, 347-358.
MacArthur, L.A., D'appolonia, B.L., 1979. Comparison of oat and wheat carbohydrates. I. Sugars. Cereal Chemistry 56, 455-457.
Makkar, H.P.S., 2010. In vitro screening of feed resources for efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. In:  Vercoe, P.E., Makkar, H.P.S., Schlink, A.C. (Eds.), In vitro Screening of Plant Resources for Extra-nutritional Attributes in Ruminants-Nuclear and related methodologies. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 107-144.
Menke, K.H., Steingass, H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research 28, 7-55.
Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., Schneider, W., 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science 92, 217-222.
Mertens, D.R., 1997. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 1463-1481.
Nadeau, E., 2007. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity and additive on the feeding value of whole-crop cereal silage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87, 789-801.
NRC, 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised ed. National Research Council, National Academy Press. Washington, DC. USA.
Niu, Z., Rossnagel, B.G., Yu, P., 2007. Chemical characteristics and nutritive values of three oat varieties for ruminants. Department of Animal and Poultry Science, and Crop Development Centre. University of Saskatchewan, Canada, pp. 1-13.
Ørskov, E.­R., McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rumen rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science 92, 499-503.
Ovenell-Roy, K.H., Nelson, M.L., Froseth, J. A., Parish, S.M., 1998. Variation in chemical composition and nutritional quality among barley cultivar for ruminants. 2. Digestion, ruminal characteristics and in situ disappearance kinetics. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78, 377-388.
Pan, L., Huang, K.H., Middlebrook, T., Zhang, D., Bryden, W., Li, X., 2021. Rumen degradability of barley, oats, sorghum, triticale and wheat in situ and the effect of pelleting. Agriculture 11, 647-656.
Parand, E., Vakili, A.R., Daneshmesgaran, M., 2018. Comparing logistic and Michaelis-Menten multiphasic models for analysis of in vitro gas production profiles of some starchy feedstuffs. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 8, 407-414.
Parvane, V., 2007. Quality Control and Chemical Testing of Food. Tehran University Publication, P. 358. (In Farsi).
Pena, R.J., Bates, L.S., 1982. Grain shrivelling in secondary hexaploid triticale. I. Alpha-amylase activity and carbohydrate content of mature and developing grains. Cereal Chemistry 59, 454-458.
Robards, K., Zhou, M., Glennie-Holmes, M., Helliwell, S., 1988. Structure and pasting properties of oat starch. Cereal Chemistry 75, 273-281.
Rong, L., Volenec, J.J., Joern B.C., Cunningham, S.M., 1996. Seasonal changes in non-structural carbohydrates, protein, and macronutrients in roots of alfalfa, red clover, sweet clover, and birds foot trefoil. Crop Science 36, 617-623.
Sabzekar, H., 2014. Study of nutritive value of irradiated millet stcrude with in situ nylon bag and in vitro gas production. M.Sc. Thesis, Zabol University, Iran (In Farsi with English Abstract).
Salabi, F., Bojarpoor, M., Nazari, M., Tabatabie, S., 2010. Comparing digestibility of triticale grain, barley grain and naked barley grain by using in vitro Tilly and Terrey technique. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9, 186-189.
Samiee Zafarghandi, M., Ghoorchi, T., Ahani Azari, M., 2010. A determination of the effects of chemical treatment of two barley cultivars on ruminal dry matter and starch disappearance and on CNCPS carbohydrate fraction characteristics. Iranian Journal of Animal Science 41, 21-32. (In Farsi with English Abstract).
Santhosh Reddy, V., Nagalakshmi, D., Venkateswarlu, M., Rathod, S., 2021. Rumen degradability and in vitro fermentation characteristics of various cereal grains. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 38, 392-399.
SAS, 2003. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Sommart, K., Parker, D.S., Rowlinson, P., Wanapat, M., 2000. Fermentation traits and microbial protein synthesis in an in vitro system using cassava, rice straw and dried Ruzi grass as substrates. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13, 1084-1093.
Szempliński, W., Dubis, B., Lachutta, K.M., Jankowski, K.J., 2021. Energy optimization in different production technologies of winter triticale grain. Energies 14, 1003-1015.
Theodorou, M.K., Williams, B.A., Dhanoa, M.S., McAllan, A.B., France, J., 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 48, 185-197.
Tilly, J.M.A., Terry, R.A., 1963. A two stages technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18, 104-111.
Tylutki, T.P., Fox, D.G., Durbal, V.M., Tedeschi, B.L.O., Russell, J.B., Van Amburgh, M.E., Overton, T.R., Chase, L.E., Pell, A.N., 2008. Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System: A model for precision feeding of dairy cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology 143, 174-202.
Valentin, S.F., Williams, P.E.V., Forbes, J.M., Sauvant, D., 1999. Composition of the in vitro gas production technique and nylon bag degradability technique to measure short- and long- term processes of degradation of maize silage in dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 78, 81-99.
Van Soest, P.J., 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminants. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583-3597.
Walsh, S., Buckley, F., Pierce, K., Byrne, N., Patton, J., Dillon, P., 2008. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 4401-4413.
Zamani-Amirabad, Z., Moslemipur, F., Bayat-Kouhsar, J., Ghanbari, F., 2015. Determination and comparison of chemical composition, degradability and gas production parameters of commercial and native barley grain Cultivars. Animal Production Research 4, 95-106. (In Farsi with English Abstract).