Al-Sultan, S.I., Abdel-Raheem, S.M., Abd-Allah, S.M.S., Edris, A.M., 2019. Alleviation of chorionic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of novel feed additive combinations. Slovenian Veterinary Research 56, 269-279.
Awad, A.L., Fahim, H.N., Ibrahim, A.F., Beshara, M.M., 2014. Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of Domyati ducks under summer conditions. Egyptian Poultry Science 34, 453-474.
Baghaei, M., Eslami, M., Chaji, M., Mamoue, M., Bojarpour, M., 2011. Effect of different levels of DL-methionine replaced with betafin on some blood parameters on broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10, 777-779.
Chand, N., Muhammad, S., Khan, R.U., Alhidary, I.A., Rehman, Z.U., 2016. Ameliorative effect of synthetic γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance traits, antioxidant status and immune response in broiler exposed to cyclic heat stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23, 23930-23935.
Chen, R., Zhuang, S., Chen, Y.P., Cheng, Y.F., Wen, C., Zhou, Y.M., 2018. Betaine improves the growth performance and muscle growth of partridge shank broiler chickens via altering myogenic gene expression and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Poultry Science 97, 4297-4305.
Coma, J., Carrion, D., Zimmerman, D.R., 1995. Use of plasma urea nitrogen as a rapid response criterion to determine the lysine requirement of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73, 472-481.
Dos Santos, T.T., Dassi, S.C., Franco, C.R.C., da Costa, C.R.V., Lee, S.A., da Silva, A.V.F., 2019. Influence of fiber and betaine on development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers between 0 and 14d of age. Animal Nutrition 5, 163-173.
Eklund, M., Bauer, E., Wamatu, J., Mosenthin, R., 2005. Potential nutritional and physiological functions of betaine in livestock. Nutrition Research 18, 31-48.
Eklund, M., Mosenthin, R., Tafaj, M., Wamatu, J., 2006a. Effects of betaine and condensed molasses soluble on nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibility in piglets fed diets deficient in methionine and low in compatible osmolytes. Archives of Animal Nutrition 60, 289- 300.
Eklund, M., Mosenthin R., Piepho, H.P., 2006b. Effects of betaine and condensed molasses soluble on ideal and total tract nutrient digestibilities in piglets. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A 56, 83-90.
El-Fakhrany, H.H., Ibrahim, Z.A., Ashour, E.A., Osman, A., Alagawany, M., 2021. Effects of in ovo injection of Astragalus kahericus polysaccharide on early growth, carcass weights and blood metabolites in broiler chickens. Animal Biotechnology 7, 1-7.
El-Kholy, M.S., Ibrahim, Z.A.E.G., El-Mekkawy, M.M., Alagawany, M., 2019. Influence of in ovo administration of some water-soluble vitamins on hatchability traits, growth, carcass traits and blood chemistry of Japanese quails. Annals of Animal Science 19, 97-111.
Farooqi, H.A.G., Khan, M.S., Khan, M.A., Rabbani, M., Pervez, K., Khan, J.A., 2005. Evaluation of betaine and vitamin C in alleviation of heat stress in broilers. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5, 744-746.
Fernandes, J.I.M., Scapini, L.B., Gottardo, E.T., Burnin Junior, A.M., Dos Santos Marques, F.E., Gruchouskei, L., 2013. Thermal conditioning during the first week on performance, heart morphology and carcass yield of broilers submitted to heat stress. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences 35, 311–319.
Fernández-Fígares, I., Conde-Aguilera, J., Nieto, R., Lachica, M., Aguilera, J., 2008. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs. Journal of Animal Science 86, 102–111.
Freeman, B.M., 1988. The domestic fowl in biomedical research: physiological effects of the environment. World Poultry Science Journal 44, 41-60.
Geyra, A., Uni, Z., Sklan, D., 2001. Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science 80, 76-82.
Gholami, J., Qotbi, A.A., Seidavi, A., Meluzzi, A., Tavaniello, S., Maiorano, G., 2015. Effects of in ovo administration of betaine and choline on hatchability results, growth and carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science 14, 187-192.
Gudev, D., Popova-Ralcheva, S., Yanchev, I., Moneva, P., Petkov, E., Ignatova, M., 2011. Effect of betaine on egg performance and some blood constituents in laying hens reared indoor under natural summer temperatures and varying levels of air ammonia. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 17, 859-866.
He, S., Zhao, S., Dai, S., Liu, D., Bokhari, S.G., 2015. Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and serum lipids in broilers subjected to chronic heat stress. Animal Science Journal 86, 897-903.
Hu, Y., Sun, Q., Li, X., Wang, M., Cai, D., Li, X., Zhao, R., 2015. In ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks. PLoS ONE 10, 1-13.
Huang, Q.C., Xu, Z.R., Han X.Y., Li, W.F., 2006. Changes in hormones, growth factor and lipid metabolism in finishing pigs fed betaine. Livestock Science 105, 78-85.
Iranian Council of Animal Care, 1995. Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
Ismail, Z.S.H., Ahmad E.A.M., 2017. Some physiological responses to dietary betaine levels in broiler chickens. Egyptian Poultry Science 37, 1249-1259
Kadam, M.M., Bhuiyan, M.M., Islam, F., Iji, P.A., 2013. Evaluation of betaine as an in ovo feeding nutrient for broiler chickens. 24th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium. Sydney, Australia, p. 158.
Konca, Y., Kinkpinar, F., Mert, S., Yaylak, E., 2008. Effect of betaine on performance, carcass, bone and blood characteristics of broilers during natural summer temperatures. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7, 930-937.
Lara, L.J., Rostagno, M.H., 2013. Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals 3, 356-369.
Lever, M., Slow, S., 2010. The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism. Clinical Biochemistry 43, 732-744.
Maddahian, A., Dadvar, P., Morovat, M., Shamsaddini Bafti, M., 2021. The effect of in ovo feeding compared with dietary feeding of betaine on performance, immunity and liver activity of broiler chickens exposed to high temperatures. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 11, 381-390
Maddahian, A., Morovat, M., Dadvar, P., Bafti, M.S., 2017. Effect of feed restriction with or without betaine supplementation on immune response, blood cation-anion balance, body temperature and bone characteristics of broiler chickens under heat stress. Journal of Livestock Science 8, 179-186.
Matthews, J.O., Ward, T.L., Southern, L.L., 1997. Interactive effects of betaine and monensin in uninfected and Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. Poultry Science 76, 1014-1019.
McDevitt, R.M., Mack, S., Wallis, I.R., 2000. Can betaine partially replace or enhance the effect of methionine by improving broiler growth and carcass characteristics? British Poultry Science 41, 473-480.
Naseem, M.T., Naseem, S., Younus, M., Iqbal, C.Z., Ghafoor, G., Aslam, A., Akhter, S., 2005. Effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on thermos-tolerance of broilers exposed to heat stress. International Journal of Poultry Science 4, 891-895.
Nichelmann, M., Tzschentke, B., 2002. Ontogeny of thermoregulation in precocial birds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 131, 751-763.
Noll, S.L., Stangeland, V., Speers, G., Brannon, J., Kalbfleisch, J., 2002. Betaine and breast meat yield in turkeys. Proc. Multi-state Poultry Nutrition and Feeding Conf., Indianapolis, IN. Universities of Kentucky, Illinois, Michigan State, Purdue and Ohio State Cooperating. (http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/poultry/multistate/publication.htm
NRC, 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA.
Ojano-Dirain, C.P., Waldroup, P.W., 2002. Protein and amino acid needs of broilers in warm weather. International Journal of Poultry Science 1, 40-46.
Rashidi, A.A., Ivari, Y.G., Khatibjoo, A., Vakili, R., 2010. Effects of dietary fat, vitamin E and zinc on immune response and blood parameters of broiler reared under heat stress. Research Journal of Poultry Science 3, 32-38.
Ratriyanto, A., Indreswari, R., Nuhriawangsa, A.M.P., 2017. Effects of dietary protein level and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. British Poultry Science 19, 445-454.
Ratriyanto, A., Mosenthin, R., 2018. Osmoregulatory function of betaine in alleviating heat stress in poultry. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 102, 1634-1650.
Ratriyanto, A., Mosenthin R., Bauer, E., Eklund, M., 2009. Metabolic, osmoregulatory and nutritional functions of betaine in monogastric animals. Asian-Austral Journal of Animal Sciences 22, 1461-1476.
Saeed, M., Babazadeh, D., Naveed, M., Arain, M.A., Hassan, F.U., Chao, S., 2017. Reconsidering betaine as a natural anti-heat stress agent in poultry industry: a review. Tropical Animal Health and Production 49, 1329-1338.
Sakomura, N.K., Barbosa, N.A., da Silva, E.P., Longo, F.A., Kawauchi, I.M., Fernandes, J.B., 2013. Effect of betaine supplementation in diets for broiler chickens on thermoneutral environment. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 8, 336-341.
SAS, 2005. SAS User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Version 9.1. Cary, NC, USA.
Saunderson, C.L., MacKinlay, J., 1990. Changes in bodyweight, composition and hepatic enzyme activities in response to dietary methionine, betaine and choline levels in growing chicks. British Journal of Nutrition 63, 339-349.
Sayed, M.A., Downing, J., 2015. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and addition of electrolyte-betaine supplements in feed or water on performance, acid-base balance and water retention in heat-stressed broilers. British Poultry Science 56, 195-209.
Senkoylu, N., Altinsoy, M., 1999. The physiological views of stress. Journal of Farm Istanbul Turkey 187, 37-39.
Shehata, A.M., Paswan, V.K., Attia, Y.A., Abdel-Moneim, A.E., Abougabal, M.S., Sharaf, M., Elmazoudy, R., Alghafari, W.T., Osman, M.A., Farag, M.R., Alagawany M., 2021. Managing gut microbiota through in ovo nutrition influences early-life programming in broiler chickens. Animals 11, 1-24.
Singh, A., Ghosh, T., Creswell, D., Haldar, S., 2015. Effects of supplementation of betaine hydrochloride on physiological performances of broilers exposed to thermal stress. Open Access Animal Physiology, 7, 111-120.
Tako, E., Ferket, P.R., Uni, Z., 2004. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on the development of chicken intestine. Poultry Science 83, 2023-2028.
Tallentire, C.W., Leinonen, I., Kyriazakis, I., 2016. Breeding for efficiency in the broiler chicken: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36, 1-16.
Tan, G.Y., Yang, L., Fu, Y.Q., Feng, J.H., Zhang, M.H., 2010. Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 89, 115-122.
Uni, Z., Ferket, P.R., 2004. Methods for early nutrition and their potential. World's Poultry Science Journal 60, 101-111.
Wallis, I.R., 1999. Dietary supplements of methionine increase breast meat yield and decrease abdominal fat in growing broiler chickens. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39, 131-141.
Wang, Y.Z., Xu, Z.R., Feng, J., 2004. The effect of betaine and DL-methionine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in meat ducks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 116, 151-159.
Yahav, S., 2009. Alleviating heat stress in domestic fowl: Different strategies. World’s Poultry Science Journal 65, 719-732.
Yao, Z., Vance, D., 1989. Head group specificity in the requirement of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for very low-density lipoprotein secretion from cultured hepatocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 11373-11380.
Zhan, X.A., Li, X.J., Zhao, Q., 2006. Effects of methionine and betaine supplement on growth performance, carcass composition and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. British Poultry Science 47, 576-580.
Zou, X.T., Feng, J., 2002. Effect of betaine on performance of laying hens. Chinese Journal of Animal Science 38, 7-9.
Zulkifli, I., Mysahra, S.A., Jin, L.Z., 2004. Dietary supplementation of betaine (Betafin[R]) and response to high temperature stress in male broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 17, 244-249.