Original Research Articles should report the results of original research. The materials should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form, and should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages (approximately 24 manuscript pages).
Invited Reviews, by invitation from the Editorail Board only, are expected to cover current issues falling within the scope of the journal. All reviews will be subject to the same peer review process as applies for original papers. They should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages.
Short Communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications may be submitted to the journal as such, or may result from a request to condense a regular paper, during the peer review process. They should not occupy more than 5 journal pages including figures, tables and references.
Technical Note is a report on a new method, technique or procedure falling within the scope of Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies. It may involve a new algorithm, computer program (e.g., for statistical analysis or simulation), or testing method for example. The Technical Note should be used for information that cannot be adequately incorporated into an Original Research Article, but is of sufficient value to be brought to the attention of the readers of Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies. The note should describe the nature of the new method, technique or procedure and clarify how it differs from those currently in use. It should not occupy more than 5 Journal pages.
Peer Review Process
All submissions to Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies are assessed initially by the Editor-in-Chief and, if considered to be within the scope of the journal, and of sufficient quality, will be sent for external peer- review, in consultation with members of the Editorial Board. The final decision on publication of papers will be based on the comments from reviewers and Associate Editors.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language.
Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Language Prior to submitting your paper, please ensure that it is written in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not both styles in the same manuscript). Manuscripts not written in good English, will be rejected without review. If necessary, please have your paper edited by Language Editing Services prior to submission.
Submission All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place via journal website, http://lst.uk.ac.ir.
Please submit, with your manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of three potential reviewers, including overseas scientists. However, the editor retains the right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers will be asked to review the manuscript.
Manuscripts should have numbered lines, with wide margins and double spacing throughout, i.e. also for abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part (s) of the text.
Manuscripts in general should be organized in the following order: • Title
• Materials and methods
• Figure captions
• Figures [separate file(s)]
• Tables [separate file(s)]
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations and formulae wherever possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, and also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area codes) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up-to-date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually contributed to the work must be retained as the original affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Acknowledgment and any additional information concerning research grants, and so on.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article; therefore it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, they must be defined at their first appearance in the abstract. The abstract must not exceed 350 words.
Keywords Immediately following the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be careful with abbreviations: only very common abbreviations are allowed. The keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Nomenclature and units
Follow the internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the International System of Units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalents in SI. Authors are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents: http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/ for further information.
Authors and Editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names where the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general, only equations explicitly referred to in the text need to be numbered.
The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.
Levels of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are * P < 0.05,**P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001.
In chemical formulae, the valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca2+ , not as Ca++. The isotope number should precede its symbol, e.g. 18O. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text should be avoided where possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g. phosphate as P2O5).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Othewise, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and place the footnotes separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as 'graphics' or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• Submit each figure as a separate file.
Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF: Color or gray scale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or gray scale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is'.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical lines. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first chronologically, then alphabetically.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Smith et al., 2000; Allan and Jones, 2003; Kramer and Jones, 2003). Harrison et al. (2010) recently showed ....'
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies requires that references give full journal titles. Please do not number the references.
Reference to a Journal article
Esmailizadeh, A.K., 2010. A partial genome scan to identify quantitative trait loci affecting birth weight in Kermani sheep. Small Ruminant Research 94, 73-78.
Lodge, G.M., Murphy, S.R., Harden, S., 2003a. Effects of grazing and management on herbage mass, persistence, animal production and soil water content of native pastures. 1. A red grass-wallaby grass pasture, Barraba, North-West Slopes New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43, 875-890.
Lodge, G.M., Murphy, S.R., Harden, S., 2003b. Effects of grazing and management on herbage mass, persistence, animal production and soil water content of native pastures. 2. A mixed native pasture, Manilla, North-West Slopes New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43, 891-905.
Zamiri, M.J., Khodaei, H.R., 2005. Seasonal thyroidal activity and reproductive characteristics of Iranian fat-tailed rams. Animal Reproduction Science 88, 245-255.
Reference to a Book chapter
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a Book
Kellems, R.O., Church, D.C., 2009. Livestock Feeds and Feeding. 6th Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
Reference to Conference Proceedings
Fournier, B.P., Schmutz, S.M., Schimpf, J., Plante, R.Y., Buchanan, F.C., 1998. A quantitative trait locus for weaning weight in Bos taurus maps to chromosome 2. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Animal Genetics, Auckland, New Zeland.
Reference to a Thesis
Rezvani, M.R., 2007. Standardisation of precaecal and total tract amino acid digestibility measurement in laying hens. Ph.D. Thesis, Martin-Luther University, Germany.
Ferdosi, M.H., 2010. Comparison of different computational methods for haplotype inference using SNPs data. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
Harrison, A.J., 1961. Annual reproductive cycles in the Tasmanian scallop Notovola meridionalis. B.Sc. (Hons.) Thesis, The University of Tasmania, Australia.
Reference to a Report or Bulletin
Chippendale, G.M, Wolf, L., 1981. The natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Special Publication No. 6, Canberra.
Statistical Centre of Iran, 2007. Iranian Demographic Statistics, News Bulletin No. 1.
Reference to On-line electronic sources
Give the author, year and title and then give further information as for a chapter or journal article, but adding the essential on-line address URL and the date the information was posted or accessed (or when the address was last verified).
Iranpur, M.V., Esmailizadeh, A.K., 2011. Rapid extraction of high quality DNA from whole blood stored at 4ºC for long period. Protocol Online. Available at http://www.natureleads.com/protocols/cache/2012_03_31_06_37_38_PM.htm [Verified 30 May 2012].
Tullet, S., 2009. Investigating hatchery practice. Ross Technology: Scotland. Available at http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/Ross_Tech_Articles/RossTechInvestigatingHatcheryPractice.pdf [Verified 22 January 2012].
References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa.